

adjacent_find , binary_search , copy , copy_backward , count , count_if , equal , equal_range , fill , fill_n , find , find_end , find_first_of , find_if , for_each , generate , generate_n , includes , inplace_merge , iter_swap , lexicographical_compare , lower_bound , make_heap , max , max_element , merge , min , min_element , mismatch , next_permutation , nth_element , partial_sort , partial_sort_copy , partition , pop_heap , prev_permutation , push_heap , random_shuffle , remove , remove_copy , remove_copy_if , remove_if , replace , replace_copy , replace_copy_if , replace_if , reverse , reverse_copy , rotate , rotate_copy , search , search_n , set_difference , set_intersection , set_symmetric_difference , set_union , sort , sort_heap , stable_partition , stable_sort , swap , swap_ranges , transform , unique , unique_copy , upper_bound  templates that implement useful algorithms (standard template library)
namespace std { template<class InIt, class Fun> Fun for_each(InIt first, InIt last, Fun f); template<class InIt, class T> InIt find(InIt first, InIt last, const T& val); template<class InIt, class Pred> InIt find_if(InIt first, InIt last, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 find_end(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 find_end(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 find_first_of(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 find_first_of(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt> FwdIt adjacent_find(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt adjacent_find(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt, class T, class Dist> typename iterator_traits<InIt>::difference_type count(InIt first, InIt last, const T& val); template<class InIt, class Pred, class Dist> typename iterator_traits<InIt>::difference_type count_if(InIt first, InIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2> pair<InIt1, InIt2> mismatch(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> pair<InIt1, InIt2> mismatch(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool equal(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool equal(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 search(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 search(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt, class Dist, class T> FwdIt search_n(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Dist n, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class Dist, class T, class Pred> FwdIt search_n(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Dist n, const T& val, Pred pr); template<class InIt, class OutIt> OutIt copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x); template<class BidIt1, class BidIt2> BidIt2 copy_backward(BidIt1 first, BidIt1 last, BidIt2 x); template<class T> void swap(T& x, T& y); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt2 swap_ranges(FwdIt1 first, FwdIt1 last, FwdIt2 x); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> void iter_swap(FwdIt1 x, FwdIt2 y); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Unop> OutIt transform(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Unop uop); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Binop> OutIt transform(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, OutIt x, Binop bop); template<class FwdIt, class T> void replace(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& vold, const T& vnew); template<class FwdIt, class Pred, class T> void replace_if(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr, const T& val); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class T> OutIt replace_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, const T& vold, const T& vnew); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred, class T> OutIt replace_copy_if(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T> void fill(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& x); template<class OutIt, class Size, class T> void fill_n(OutIt first, Size n, const T& x); template<class FwdIt, class Gen> void generate(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Gen g); template<class OutIt, class Pred, class Gen> void generate_n(OutIt first, Dist n, Gen g); template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt remove(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt remove_if(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class T> OutIt remove_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, const T& val); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt remove_copy_if(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt> FwdIt unique(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt unique(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt, class OutIt> OutIt unique_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt unique_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class BidIt> void reverse(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class OutIt> OutIt reverse_copy(BidIt first, BidIt last, OutIt x); template<class FwdIt> void rotate(FwdIt first, FwdIt middle, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class OutIt> OutIt rotate_copy(FwdIt first, FwdIt middle, FwdIt last, OutIt x); template<class RanIt> void random_shuffle(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Fun> void random_shuffle(RanIt first, RanIt last, Fun& f); template<class BidIt, class Pred> BidIt partition(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr); template<class BidIt, class Pred> BidIt stable_partition(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void sort(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void sort(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class BidIt> void stable_sort(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> void stable_sort(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void partial_sort(RanIt first, RanIt middle, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void partial_sort(RanIt first, RanIt middle, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt, class RanIt> RanIt partial_sort_copy(InIt first1, InIt last1, RanIt first2, RanIt last2); template<class InIt, class RanIt, class Pred> RanIt partial_sort_copy(InIt first1, InIt last1, RanIt first2, RanIt last2, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void nth_element(RanIt first, RanIt nth, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void nth_element(RanIt first, RanIt nth, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt lower_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> FwdIt lower_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt upper_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> FwdIt upper_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt, class T> pair<FwdIt, FwdIt> equal_range(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> pair<FwdIt, FwdIt> equal_range(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt, class T> bool binary_search(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> bool binary_search(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt merge(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt merge(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class BidIt> void inplace_merge(BidIt first, BidIt middle, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> void inplace_merge(BidIt first, BidIt middle, BidIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool includes(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool includes(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_union(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_union(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_intersection(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_intersection(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_symmetric_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_symmetric_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void push_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void push_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void pop_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void pop_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void make_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void make_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class RanIt> void sort_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void sort_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr); template<class T> const T& max(const T& x, const T& y); template<class T, class Pred> const T& max(const T& x, const T& y, Pred pr); template<class T> const T& min(const T& x, const T& y); template<class T, class Pred> const T& min(const T& x, const T& y, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt> FwdIt max_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt max_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr); template<class FwdIt> FwdIt min_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt min_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr); template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool lexicographical_compare(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool lexicographical_compare(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, Pred pr); template<class BidIt> bool next_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> bool next_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr); template<class BidIt> bool prev_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> bool prev_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr); };
Include the STL
standard header <algorithm>
to define numerous template functions that perform
useful algorithms. The descriptions that follow
make extensive use of common template parameter names
(or prefixes) to indicate the least powerful category
of iterator permitted as an actual argument type:
OutIt

to indicate an output iteratorInIt

to indicate an input iteratorFwdIt

to indicate a forward iteratorBidIt

to indicate a bidirectional iteratorRanIt

to indicate a randomaccess iteratorThe descriptions of these templates employ a number of conventions common to all algorithms.
The descriptions of the algorithm template functions employ several shorthand phrases:
[A, B)
'' means
the sequence of zero or more discrete values beginning with A
up to but not including B
. A range is valid only if
B
is reachable from A

you can store A
in an object N
(N = A
),
increment the object zero or more times (++N
),
and have the object compare equal to B
after a finite number of increments (N == B
).N
in the range
[A, B)
'' means that N
begins with the value A
and is incremented
zero or more times until it equals the value B
.
The case N == B
is not in the range.N
in the range [A, B)
such that X'' means
that the condition X is determined for each N
in the range [A, B)
until the condition X is met.N
in the range [A, B)
such that X'' usually means
that X is determined for each N
in the range [A, B)
.
The function stores in K
a
copy of N
each time the condition X is met.
If any such store occurs, the function replaces the final
value of N
(which equals B
)
with the value of K
. For a bidirectional or
randomaccess iterator, however, it can also mean that
N
begins with the highest value in the range
and is decremented over the range until the condition X is met.X  Y
, where X
and Y
can be iterators other than randomaccess
iterators, are intended in the mathematical sense. The
function does not necessarily evaluate operator
if it must
determine such a value. The same is also true for expressions
such as X + N
and X  N
,
where N
is an integer type.Several algorithms make use of a predicate, using operator==
,
that must impose an
equivalence relationship
on pairs of elements from a sequence.
For all elements X
, Y
, and Z
:
X == X
is true.X == Y
is true, then Y == X
is true.X == Y && Y == Z
is true, then X == Z
is true.Several algorithms make use of a predicate that must impose a
strict weak ordering
on pairs of elements from a sequence.
For the predicate pr(X, Y)
:
pr(X, X)
is falseX
and Y
have an
equivalent ordering
if !pr(X, Y) && !pr(Y, X)
(X == Y
need not be defined)pr(X, Y) &&
pr(Y, Z)
implies pr(X, Z)
Some of these algorithms implicitly use the predicate
X < Y
. Other predicates that typically
satisfy the ``strict weak ordering'' requirement are
X > Y
,
less(X, Y)
, and
greater(X, Y)
.
Note, however, that predicates such as X <= Y
and
X >= Y
do not satisfy this requirement.
A sequence of elements designated by iterators in the range
[first, last)
is
``a sequence ordered by
operator<
'' if, for each N
in the range [0, last  first)
and for each M
in the range (N, last  first)
the predicate
!(*(first + M) < *(first + N))
is true. (Note that the elements are sorted in
ascending order.)
The predicate function operator<
, or any
replacement for it, must not alter either of its operands.
Moreover, it must impose a
strict weak ordering on the operands
it compares.
A sequence of elements designated by iterators in the range
[first, last)
is
``a heap ordered by
operator<
'' if, for each N
in the range [1, last  first)
the predicate
!(*first < *(first + N))
is true. (The first element is the largest.) Its internal structure
is otherwise known only to the template functions
make_heap
,
pop_heap
, and
push_heap
.
As with an ordered sequence,
the predicate function operator<
, or any
replacement for it, must not alter either of its operands,
and it must impose a
strict weak ordering on the operands
it compares.
template<class FwdIt> FwdIt adjacent_find(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt adjacent_find(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest N
in the range [0, last  first)
for which
N + 1 != last  first
and the predicate
*(first + N) == *(first + N + 1)
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last
.
It evaluates the predicate exactly N + 1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first + N), *(first + N + 1))
.
template<class FwdIt, class T> bool binary_search(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> bool binary_search(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr);
The first template function determines whether
a value of N
exists
in the range [0, last  first)
for which
*(first + N)
has
equivalent ordering
to val
, where the elements designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
If so, the function returns true.
If no such value exists, it returns false.
If FwdIt
is a randomaccess iterator type,
the function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
ceil(log(last  first)) + 2
times. Otherwise,
the function evaluates the predicate a number of times
proportional to last  first
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt, class OutIt> OutIt copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x);
The template function evaluates *(x + N) = *(first + N))
once for each N
in the range [0, last  first)
,
for strictly increasing values of N
beginning with
the lowest value. It then returns x + N
.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
x
must not be in the range [first, last)
.
template<class BidIt1, class BidIt2> BidIt2 copy_backward(BidIt1 first, BidIt1 last, BidIt2 x);
The template function evaluates
*(x  N  1) = *(last  N  1))
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
,
for strictly decreasing values of N
beginning with
the highest value. It then returns x  (last  first)
.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
x
must not be in the range [first, last)
.
template<class InIt, class T> typename iterator_traits<InIt>::difference_type count(InIt first, InIt last, const T& val);
The template function sets a count n
to zero. It then
executes ++n
for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
for which the predicate *(first + N) == val
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
The function returns n
.
It evaluates the predicate exactly last  first
times.
template<class InIt, class Pred, class Dist> typename iterator_traits<InIt>::difference_type count_if(InIt first, InIt last, Pred pr);
The template function sets a count n
to zero. It then
executes ++n
for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
for which the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is true.
The function returns n
.
It evaluates the predicate exactly last  first
times.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool equal(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool equal(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x, Pred pr);
The first template function returns true only if, for
each N
in the range [0, last1  first1)
,
the predicate *(first1 + N) == *(first2 + N)
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
The function evaluates the predicate at most once
for each N
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first1 + N), *(first2 + N))
.
template<class FwdIt, class T> pair<FwdIt, FwdIt> equal_range(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> pair<FwdIt, FwdIt> equal_range(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr);
The first template function effectively returns
pair(
lower_bound(first, last, val),
upper_bound(first, last, val))
,
where the elements designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
Thus, the function determines the largest range of positions
over which val
can be inserted in the sequence
and still preserve its ordering.
If FwdIt
is a randomaccess iterator type,
the function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
ceil(2 * log(last  first)) + 1
. Otherwise,
the function evaluates the predicate a number of times
proportional to last  first
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class FwdIt, class T> void fill(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& x);
The template function evaluates *(first + N) = x
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
template<class OutIt, class Size, class T> void fill_n(OutIt first, Size n, const T& x);
The template function evaluates *(first + N) = x
once for
each N
in the range [0, n)
.
template<class InIt, class T> InIt find(InIt first, InIt last, const T& val);
The template function determines the lowest value of N
in the range [0, last  first)
for which the predicate
*(first + N) == val
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last
.
It evaluates the predicate at most once
for each N
.
template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 find_end(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 find_end(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the highest value of
N
in the range [0,
last1  first1  (last2  first2))
such that for each M
in the range
[0, last2  first2)
,
the predicate *(first1 + N + M) == *(first2 + N + M)
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first1 + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last1
.
It evaluates the predicate at most (last2  first2) *
(last1  first1  (last2  first2) + 1)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first1 + N + M), *(first2 + N + M))
.
template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 find_first_of(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 find_first_of(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of
N
in the range [0, last1  first1)
such that
for some M
in the range [0, last2  first2)
,
the predicate *(first1 + N) == *(first2 + M)
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first1 + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last1
.
It evaluates the predicate at most
(last1  first1) * (last2  first2)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first1 + N), *(first2 + M))
.
template<class InIt, class Pred> InIt find_if(InIt first, InIt last, Pred pr);
The template function determines the lowest value of N
in the range [0, last  first)
for which the predicate
pred(*(first + N))
is true.
It then returns first + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last
.
It evaluates the predicate at most once
for each N
.
template<class InIt, class Fun> Fun for_each(InIt first, InIt last, Fun f);
The template function evaluates f(*(first + N))
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
It then returns f
.
template<class FwdIt, class Gen> void generate(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Gen g);
The template function evaluates *(first + N) = g()
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
template<class OutIt, class Pred, class Gen> void generate_n(OutIt first, Dist n, Gen g);
The template function evaluates *(first + N) = g()
once for
each N
in the range [0, n)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool includes(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool includes(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines whether
a value of N
exists
in the range [0, last2  first2)
such that,
for each M
in the range [0, last1  first1)
,
*(first + M)
and *(first + N)
do not have
equivalent ordering,
where the elements designated by iterators
in the ranges [first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
each form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
If so, the function returns false.
If no such value exists, it returns true.
Thus, the function determines whether the ordered sequence
designated by iterators in the range
[first2, last2)
all have equivalent ordering with some
element designated by iterators in the range
[first1, last1)
.
The function evaluates the predicate at most
2 * ((last1  first1) + (last2  first2))  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class BidIt> void inplace_merge(BidIt first, BidIt middle, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> void inplace_merge(BidIt first, BidIt middle, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the
sequences designated by iterators in the ranges [first, middle)
and [middle, last)
, each
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length last  first
beginning at first
also ordered by operator<
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of
elements within either original sequence. Moreover, for any two elements
from different original sequences that have
equivalent ordering,
the element from the ordered range [first, middle)
precedes the other.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * log(last  first))
times.
(Given enough temporary storage, it can evaluate the predicate at most
(last  first)  1
times.)
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> void iter_swap(FwdIt1 x, FwdIt2 y);
The template function leaves the value originally stored in
*y
subsequently stored in *x
,
and the value originally stored in *x
subsequently stored in *y
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2> bool lexicographical_compare(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> bool lexicographical_compare(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines K
,
the number of elements to compare as the smaller of
last1  first1
and last2  first2
.
It then determines the lowest value of N
in the range [0, K)
for which
*(first1 + N)
and *(first2 + N)
do not have
equivalent ordering.
If no such value exists, the function returns true only if
K < (last2  first2)
. Otherwise, it returns
true only if *(first1 + N) < *(first2 + N)
.
Thus, the function returns true only if the sequence designated
by iterators in the range [first1, last1)
is
lexicographically less than the other sequence.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most 2 * K
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt lower_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> FwdIt lower_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the highest value of N
in the range (0, last  first]
such that,
for each M
in the range [0, N)
the predicate *(first + M) < val
is true,
where the elements designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
It then returns first + N
.
Thus, the function determines the lowest position
before which val
can be inserted in the sequence
and still preserve its ordering.
If FwdIt
is a randomaccess iterator type,
the function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
ceil(log(last  first)) + 1
times. Otherwise,
the function evaluates the predicate a number of times
proportional to last  first
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void make_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void make_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a heap
ordered by operator<
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
3 * (last  first)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class T> const T& max(const T& x, const T& y); template<class T, class Pred> const T& max(const T& x, const T& y, Pred pr);
The first template function returns y
if
x < y
. Otherwise it returns x
.
T
need supply only a singleargument constructor and a
destructor.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class FwdIt> FwdIt max_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt max_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of N
in the range [0, last  first)
such that,
for each M
in the range [0, last  first)
the predicate *(first + N) < *(first + M)
is false.
It then returns first + N
.
Thus, the function determines the lowest position
that contains the largest value in the sequence.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
exactly
max((last  first)  1, 0)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt merge(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt merge(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function determines K
,
the number of elements to copy as (last1  first1) +
(last2  first2)
. It then alternately
copies two sequences, designated by iterators
in the ranges [first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
and each
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length K
beginning
at x
, also ordered by operator<
.
The function then returns x + K
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of
elements within either sequence. Moreover, for any two elements
from different sequences that have
equivalent ordering,
the element from the ordered range [first1, last1)
precedes the other. Thus, the function merges two ordered
sequences to form another ordered sequence.
If x
and first1
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first1, last1)
.
If x
and first2
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first2, last2)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
K  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class T> const T& min(const T& x, const T& y); template<class T, class Pred> const T& min(const T& x, const T& y, Pred pr);
The first template function returns y
if
y < x
. Otherwise it returns x
.
T
need supply only a singleargument constructor and a
destructor.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class FwdIt> FwdIt min_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt min_element(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of N
in the range [0, last  first)
such that,
for each M
in the range [0, last  first)
the predicate *(first + M) < *(first + N)
is false.
It then returns first + N
.
Thus, the function determines the lowest position
that contains the smallest value in the sequence.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
exactly
max((last  first)  1, 0)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2> pair<InIt1, InIt2> mismatch(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class Pred> pair<InIt1, InIt2> mismatch(InIt1 first, InIt1 last, InIt2 x, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of
N
in the range [0, last1  first1)
for which the predicate
!(*(first1 + N) == *(first2 + N))
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns
pair(first1 + N, first2 + N)
.
If no such value exists, N has the value last1  first1
.
The function evaluates the predicate at most once
for each N
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first1 + N), *(first2 + N))
.
template<class BidIt> bool next_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> bool next_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function determines a repeating
sequence of permutations, whose initial permutation occurs when
the sequence designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
is
ordered by operator<
.
(The elements are sorted in ascending order.)
It then reorders the elements in the sequence, by evaluating
swap(X, Y)
for the elements
X
and Y
zero or more times,
to form the next permutation. The function returns true only if the resulting
sequence is not the initial permutation. Otherwise, the resultant
sequence is the one next larger lexicographically than the original
sequence. No two elements may have
equivalent ordering.
The function evaluates swap(X, Y)
at most (last  first) / 2
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void nth_element(RanIt first, RanIt nth, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void nth_element(RanIt first, RanIt nth, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
such that for each N
in the range [0, nth  first)
and for each M
in the range [nth  first, last  first)
the predicate
!(*(first + M) < *(first + N))
is true. Moreover, for N
equal to
nth  first
and for each M
in the range (nth  first, last  first)
the predicate
!(*(first + M) < *(first + N))
is true. Thus, if nth != last
the element *nth
is in its proper position if elements of the entire sequence
were sorted in ascending order,
ordered by operator<
.
Any elements before this one belong before it in the sort sequence,
and any elements after it belong after it.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
a number of times proportional to
last  first
, on average.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void partial_sort(RanIt first, RanIt middle, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void partial_sort(RanIt first, RanIt middle, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
such that for each N
in the range [0, middle  first)
and for each M
in the range (N, last  first)
the predicate
!(*(first + M) < *(first + N))
is true. Thus, the smallest middle  first
elements of the entire sequence are sorted in ascending order,
ordered by operator<
.
The order of the remaining elements is otherwise unspecified.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * log(middle  first))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt, class RanIt> RanIt partial_sort_copy(InIt first1, InIt last1, RanIt first2, RanIt last2); template<class InIt, class RanIt, class Pred> RanIt partial_sort_copy(InIt first1, InIt last1, RanIt first2, RanIt last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines K
,
the number of elements to copy as the smaller of
last1  first1
and last2  first2
. It then
copies and reorders K
of the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first1, last1)
such that
the K
elements copied to first2
are
ordered by operator<
.
Moreover, for each N
in the range [0, K)
and for each M
in the range (0, last1  first1)
corresponding
to an uncopied element, the predicate
!(*(first2 + M) < *(first1 + N))
is true. Thus, the smallest K
elements of the entire sequence designated by iterators
in the range [first1, last1)
are copied and sorted in ascending order to the range
[first2, first2 + K)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * log(K))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class BidIt, class Pred> BidIt partition(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The template function reorders the sequence designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
and determines the value
K
such that for each N
in the range
[0, K)
the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is true, and for each N
in the range
[K, last  first)
the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is false. The function then returns first + K
.
The predicate must not alter its operand.
The function evaluates pr(*(first + N))
exactly
last  first
times, and swaps at most
(last  first) / 2
pairs of elements.
template<class RanIt> void pop_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void pop_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a new heap,
ordered by operator<
and
designated by iterators in the range
[first, last  1)
, leaving the original
element at *first
subsequently at *(last  1)
.
The original sequence must designate an existing heap,
also ordered by operator<
. Thus, first !=
last
must be true and *(last  1)
is the
element to remove from (pop off) the heap.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil(2 * log(last  first))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class BidIt> bool prev_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> bool prev_permutation(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function determines a repeating
sequence of permutations, whose initial permutation occurs when
the sequence designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
is the reverse of one
ordered by operator<
.
(The elements are sorted in descending order.)
It then reorders the elements in the sequence, by evaluating
swap(X, Y)
for the elements
X
and Y
zero or more times,
to form the next permutation. The function returns true only if the resulting
sequence is not the initial permutation. Otherwise, the resultant
sequence is the one next smaller lexicographically than the original
sequence. No two elements may have
equivalent ordering.
The function evaluates swap(X, Y)
at most (last  first) / 2
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void push_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void push_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a new heap
ordered by operator<
.
Iterators in the range
[first, last  1)
must designate an existing heap,
also ordered by operator<
. Thus, first !=
last
must be true and *(last  1)
is the
element to add to (push on) the heap.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil(log(last  first))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void random_shuffle(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Fun> void random_shuffle(RanIt first, RanIt last, Fun& f);
The first template function evaluates
swap(*(first + N), *(first + M))
once for
each N
in the range [1, last  first)
,
where M
is a value from some uniform random distribution
over the range [0, N)
.
Thus, the function randomly shuffles
the order of elements in the sequence.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
M
is (Dist)f((Dist)N)
, where
Dist
is the type
iterator_traits::
difference_type
.
template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt remove(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val);
The template function effectively assigns first
to
X
, then executes the statement:
if (!(*(first + N) == val)) *X++ = *(first + N);
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns X
.
Thus, the function removes from the sequence all elements for
which the predicate *(first + N) == val
is true,
without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
revised sequence.
template<class InIt, class OutIt, class T> OutIt remove_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, const T& val);
The template function effectively executes the statement:
if (!(*(first + N) == val)) *x++ = *(first + N);
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns x
.
Thus, the function removes from the sequence all elements for
which the predicate *(first + N) == val
is true,
without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
revised sequence.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt remove_copy_if(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The template function effectively executes the statement:
if (!pr(*(first + N))) *x++ = *(first + N);
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
. It then returns x
.
Thus, the function removes from the sequence all elements for
which the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is true,
without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
revised sequence.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt remove_if(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr);
The template function effectively assigns first
to
X
, then executes the statement:
if (!pr(*(first + N))) *X++ = *(first + N);
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
. It then returns X
.
Thus, the function removes from the sequence all elements for
which the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is true,
without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
revised sequence.
template<caass FwdIt, class T> void replace(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& vold, const T& vnew);
The template function executes the statement:
if (*(first + N) == vold) *(first + N) = vnew;
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
template<class InIt, class OutIt, class T> OutIt replace_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, const T& vold, const T& vnew);
The template function executes the statement:
if (*(first + N) == vold) *(x + N) = vnew; else *(x + N) = *(first + N)
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred, class T> OutIt replace_copy_if(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr, const T& val);
The template function executes the statement:
if (pr(*(first + N))) *(x + N) = val; else *(x + N) = *(first + N)
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class FwdIt, class Pred, class T> void replace_if(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr, const T& val);
The template function executes the statement:
if (pr(*(first + N))) *(first + N) = val;
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
.
template<class BidIt> void reverse(BidIt first, BidIt last);
The template function evaluates
swap(*(first + N), *(last  1  N)
once for
each N
in the range [0, (last  first) / 2)
.
Thus, the function reverses the order of elements in the sequence.
template<class BidIt, class OutIt> OutIt reverse_copy(BidIt first, BidIt last, OutIt x);
The template function evaluates
*(x + N) = *(last  1  N)
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
It then returns x + (last  first)
.
Thus, the function reverses the order of elements in the sequence
that it copies.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class FwdIt> void rotate(FwdIt first, FwdIt middle, FwdIt last);
The template function leaves the value originally stored in
*(first + (N + (middle  first)) % (last  first))
subsequently stored in *(first + N)
for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
Thus, if a ``left'' shift by one element leaves the element
originally stored in *(first + (N + 1) % (last  first))
subsequently stored in *(first + N)
, then the function
can be said to rotate the sequence either left by
middle  first
elements or right by last  middle
elements. Both [first, middle)
and [middle, last)
must be valid ranges. The function swaps at most last  first
pairs of elements.
template<class FwdIt, class OutIt> OutIt rotate_copy(FwdIt first, FwdIt middle, FwdIt last, OutIt x);
The template function evaluates
*(x + N) = *(first + (N + (middle  first)) % (last  first))
once for each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
Thus, if a ``left'' shift by one element leaves the element
originally stored in *(first + (N + 1) % (last  first))
subsequently stored in *(first + N)
, then the function
can be said to rotate the sequence either left by
middle  first
elements or right by last  middle
elements as it copies.
Both [first, middle)
and [middle, last)
must be valid ranges.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt1 search(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2); template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2, class Pred> FwdIt1 search(FwdIt1 first1, FwdIt1 last1, FwdIt2 first2, FwdIt2 last2, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of
N
in the range [0,
(last1  first1)  (last2  first2))
such that
for each M
in the range [0, last2  first2)
,
the predicate *(first1 + N + M) == *(first2 + M)
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first1 + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last1
.
It evaluates the predicate at most (last2  first2) *
(last1  first1)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first1 + N + M), *(first2 + M))
.
template<class FwdIt, class Dist, class T> FwdIt search_n(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Dist n, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class Dist, class T, class Pred> FwdIt search_n(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Dist n, const T& val, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the lowest value of
N
in the range [0,
(last  first)  n)
such that
for each M
in the range [0, n)
,
the predicate *(first + N + M) == val
is true.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It then returns first + N
.
If no such value exists, the function returns last
.
It evaluates the predicate at most n *
(last  first)
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
the predicate is pr(*(first + N + M), val)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function alternately
copies values from two sequences designated by iterators in the ranges
[first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
, both
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length K
beginning
at x
, also ordered by operator<
.
The function then returns x + K
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of
elements within either sequence. Moreover, for two elements
from different sequences that have
equivalent ordering
that would otherwise be copied to adjacent elements,
the function copies only
the element from the ordered range [first1, last1)
and skips the other. An element from one sequence that has
equivalent ordering with no element from the other sequence
is copied from the ordered range [first1, last1)
and skipped from the other.
Thus, the function merges two ordered
sequences to form another ordered sequence that is effectively
the difference of two sets.
If x
and first1
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first1, last1)
.
If x
and first2
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first2, last2)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
2 * ((last1  first1) + (last2  first2))  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_intersection(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_intersection(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function alternately
copies values from two sequences designated by iterators in the ranges
[first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
, both
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length K
beginning
at x
, also ordered by operator<
.
The function then returns x + K
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of
elements within either sequence. Moreover, for two elements
from different sequences that have
equivalent ordering
that would otherwise be copied to adjacent elements,
the function copies only
the element from the ordered range [first1, last1)
and skips the other. An element from one sequence that has
equivalent ordering with no element from the other sequence
is also skipped.
Thus, the function merges two ordered
sequences to form another ordered sequence that is effectively
the intersection of two sets.
If x
and first1
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first1, last1)
.
If x
and first2
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first2, last2)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
2 * ((last1  first1) + (last2  first2))  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_symmetric_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_symmetric_difference(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function alternately
copies values from two sequences designated by iterators in the ranges
[first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
, both
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length K
beginning
at x
, also ordered by operator<
.
The function then returns x + K
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of elements within either sequence. Moreover, for two elements from different sequences that have equivalent ordering that would otherwise be copied to adjacent elements, the function copies neither element. An element from one sequence that has equivalent ordering with no element from the other sequence is copied. Thus, the function merges two ordered sequences to form another ordered sequence that is effectively the symmetric difference of two sets.
If x
and first1
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first1, last1)
.
If x
and first2
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first2, last2)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
2 * ((last1  first1) + (last2  first2))  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt> OutIt set_union(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt set_union(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, InIt2 last2, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function alternately
copies values from two sequences designated by iterators in the ranges
[first1, last1)
and [first2, last2)
, both
ordered by operator<
,
to form a merged sequence of length K
beginning
at x
, also ordered by operator<
.
The function then returns x + K
.
The merge occurs without altering the relative order of
elements within either sequence. Moreover, for two elements
from different sequences that have
equivalent ordering
that would otherwise be copied to adjacent elements,
the function copies only
the element from the ordered range [first1, last1)
and skips the other.
Thus, the function merges two ordered
sequences to form another ordered sequence that is effectively
the union of two sets.
If x
and first1
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first1, last1)
.
If x
and first2
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + K)
must not
overlap the range [first2, last2)
.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
2 * ((last1  first1) + (last2  first2))  1
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void sort(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void sort(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
Thus, the elements are sorted in ascending order.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * log(last  first))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class RanIt> void sort_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last); template<class RanIt, class Pred> void sort_heap(RanIt first, RanIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a sequence
that is
ordered by operator<
.
The original sequence must designate a heap, also
ordered by operator<
.
Thus, the elements are sorted in ascending order.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * log(last  first))
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class BidIt, class Pred> BidIt stable_partition(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The template function reorders the sequence designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
and determines the value
K
such that for each N
in the range
[0, K)
the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is true, and for each N
in the range
[K, last  first)
the predicate pr(*(first + N))
is false. It does so without altering the relative order of either
the elements designated by indexes
in the range [0, K)
or
the elements designated by indexes
in the range [K, last  first)
.
The function then returns first + K
.
The predicate must not alter its operand.
The function evaluates pr(*(first + N))
exactly
last  first
times, and swaps at most
ceil((last  first) * log(last  first))
pairs of elements. (Given enough temporary storage, it can
replace the swaps with at most
2 * (last  first)
assignments.)
template<class BidIt> void stable_sort(BidIt first, BidIt last); template<class BidIt, class Pred> void stable_sort(BidIt first, BidIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function reorders the sequence
designated by iterators in the
range [first, last)
to form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
It does so without altering the relative order of
elements that have
equivalent ordering.
Thus, the elements are sorted in ascending order.
The function evaluates the ordering predicate
X < Y
at most
ceil((last  first) * (log(last  first))^2)
times.
(Given enough temporary storage, it can evaluate the predicate at most
ceil((last  first) * log(last  first))
times.)
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
template<class T> void swap(T& x, T& y);
The template function leaves the value originally stored in
y
subsequently stored in x
,
and the value originally stored in x
subsequently stored in y
.
template<class FwdIt1, class FwdIt2> FwdIt2 swap_ranges(FwdIt1 first, FwdIt1 last, FwdIt2 x);
The template function evaluates
swap(*(first + N), *(x + N))
once for
each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
It then returns x + (last  first)
.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Unop> OutIt transform(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Unop uop); template<class InIt1, class InIt2, class OutIt, class Binop> OutIt transform(InIt1 first1, InIt1 last1, InIt2 first2, OutIt x, Binop bop);
The first template function evaluates
*(x + N) = uop(*(first + N))
once for each N
in the range [0, last  first)
.
It then returns x + (last  first)
. The call
uop(*(first + N))
must not alter
*(first + N)
.
The second template function evaluates
*(x + N) = bop(*(first1 + N), *(first2 + N))
once for each N
in the range [0, last1  first1)
.
It then returns x + (last1  first1)
. The call
bop(*(first1 + N), *(first2 + N))
must not alter
either *(first1 + N)
or *(first2 + N)
.
template<class FwdIt> FwdIt unique(FwdIt first, FwdIt last); template<class FwdIt, class Pred> FwdIt unique(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, Pred pr);
The first template function effectively assigns first
to
X
, then executes the statement:
if (N == 0  !(*(first + N) == V)) V = *(first + N), *X++ = V;
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
. It then returns X
.
Thus, the function repeatedly removes from the sequence
the second of a pair of elements for
which the predicate *(first + N) == *(first + N  1)
is true,
until only the first of a sequence of equal elements survives.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It does so without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
revised sequence. The function evaluates the predicate at most
last  first
times.
The second template function behaves the same, except that it executes the statement:
if (N == 0  !pr(*(first + N), V)) V = *(first + N), *X++ = V;
template<class InIt, class OutIt> OutIt unique_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x); template<class InIt, class OutIt, class Pred> OutIt unique_copy(InIt first, InIt last, OutIt x, Pred pr);
The first template function effectively executes the statement:
if (N == 0  !(*(first + N) == V)) V = *(first + N), *x++ = V;
once for each N
in the range
[0, last  first)
. It then returns x
.
Thus, the function repeatedly removes from the sequence it copies
the second of a pair of elements for
which the predicate *(first + N) == *(first + N  1)
is true,
until only the first of a sequence of equal elements survives.
Here, operator==
must impose an
equivalence relationship
between its operands.
It does so without altering the relative order of remaining elements,
and returns the iterator value that designates the end of the
copied sequence.
If x
and first
designate regions of storage,
the range [x, x + (last  first))
must not
overlap the range [first, last)
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that it executes the statement:
if (N == 0  !pr(*(first + N), V)) V = *(first + N), *x++ = V;
template<class FwdIt, class T> FwdIt upper_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val); template<class FwdIt, class T, class Pred> FwdIt upper_bound(FwdIt first, FwdIt last, const T& val, Pred pr);
The first template function determines the highest value of N
in the range (0, last  first]
such that,
for each M
in the range [0, N)
the predicate !(val < *(first + M))
is true,
where the elements designated by iterators
in the range [first, last)
form a sequence
ordered by operator<
.
It then returns first + N
.
Thus, the function determines the highest position
before which val
can be inserted in the sequence
and still preserve its ordering.
If FwdIt
is a randomaccess iterator type,
the function evaluates the ordering predicate X < Y
at most
ceil(log(last  first)) + 1
times. Otherwise,
the function evaluates the predicate a number of times
proportional to last  first
.
The second template function behaves the same, except that
it replaces operator<(X, Y)
with
pr(X, Y)
.
Copyright © 19921996 by P.J. Plauger. Portions derived from work copyright © 1994 by HewlettPackard Company. All rights reserved.