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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)


     gfdl - GNU Free Documentation License


     @comment For some cases, this default @node/@unnumbered is
     not applicable and @comment causes warnings.  In those
     cases, the including file can set @comment
     nodefaultgnufreedocumentationlicensenode and provide it's
     own version.  @comment F.i., when this file is included in
     an @raisesections context, the @comment including file can
     use an @unnumberedsec.

  GNU Free Documentation License
  Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
             Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

             Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
             of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

     0.  PREAMBLE

         The purpose of this License is to make a manual,
         textbook, or other functional and useful document free
         in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
         effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or
         without modifying it, either commercially or
         noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves
         for the author and publisher a way to get credit for
         their work, while not being considered responsible for
         modifications made by others.

         This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that
         derivative works of the document must themselves be free
         in the same sense.  It complements the GNU General
         Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for
         free software.

         We have designed this License in order to use it for
         manuals for free software, because free software needs
         free documentation: a free program should come with
         manuals providing the same freedoms that the software
         does.  But this License is not limited to software
         manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
         of subject matter or whether it is published as a
         printed book.  We recommend this License principally for
         works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


         This License applies to any manual or other work, in any
         medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of
         this License.  Such a notice grants a world-wide,
         royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
         work under the conditions stated herein.  The
         "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
         Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed
         as "you".  You accept the license if you copy, modify or
         distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
         copyright law.

         A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work
         containing the Document or a portion of it, either
         copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated
         into another language.

         A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-
         matter section of the Document that deals exclusively
         with the relationship of the publishers or authors of
         the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to
         related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
         directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the
         Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
         Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.)  The
         relationship could be a matter of historical connection
         with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
         commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
         regarding them.

         The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections
         whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant
         Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is
         released under this License.  If a section does not fit
         the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed
         to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain
         zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not
         identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

         The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text
         that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover
         Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is
         released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may be
         at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25

         A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-
         readable copy, represented in a format whose
         specification is available to the general public, that
         is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly
         with generic text editors or (for images composed of
         pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
         widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable
         for input to text formatters or for automatic

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
         to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
         Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
         markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage
         subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
         An image format is not Transparent if used for any
         substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not
         "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

         Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies
         include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input
         format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly
         available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML,
         PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.
         Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF
         and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats
         that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
         processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
         processing tools are not generally available, and the
         machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by
         some word processors for output purposes only.

         The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title
         page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to
         hold, legibly, the material this License requires to
         appear in the title page.  For works in formats which do
         not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the
         text near the most prominent appearance of the work's
         title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

         The "publisher" means any person or entity that
         distributes copies of the Document to the public.

         A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the
         Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains
         XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in
         another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a specific
         section name mentioned below, such as
         "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or
         "History".)  To "Preserve the Title" of such a section
         when you modify the Document means that it remains a
         section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

         The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to
         the notice which states that this License applies to the
         Document.  These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to
         be included by reference in this License, but only as
         regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication
         that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
         no effect on the meaning of this License.


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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium,
         either commercially or noncommercially, provided that
         this License, the copyright notices, and the license
         notice saying this License applies to the Document are
         reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
         conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may
         not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
         reading or further copying of the copies you make or
         distribute.  However, you may accept compensation in
         exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
         number of copies you must also follow the conditions in
         section 3.

         You may also lend copies, under the same conditions
         stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


         If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that
         commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering
         more than 100, and the Document's license notice
         requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in
         covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
         Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-
         Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also
         clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
         these copies.  The front cover must present the full
         title with all words of the title equally prominent and
         visible.  You may add other material on the covers in
         addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers,
         as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
         satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim
         copying in other respects.

         If the required texts for either cover are too
         voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones
         listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover,
         and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

         If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the
         Document numbering more than 100, you must either
         include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with
         each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
         computer-network location from which the general
         network-using public has access to download using
         public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
         copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you
         use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent
         steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in
         quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
         remain thus accessible at the stated location until at
         least one year after the last time you distribute an

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
         retailers) of that edition to the public.

         It is requested, but not required, that you contact the
         authors of the Document well before redistributing any
         large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide
         you with an updated version of the Document.


         You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the
         Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above,
         provided that you release the Modified Version under
         precisely this License, with the Modified Version
         filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
         distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
         whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must
         do these things in the Modified Version:

         A.  Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a
             title distinct from that of the Document, and from
             those of previous versions (which should, if there
             were any, be listed in the History section of the
             Document).  You may use the same title as a previous
             version if the original publisher of that version
             gives permission.

         B.  List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more
             persons or entities responsible for authorship of
             the modifications in the Modified Version, together
             with at least five of the principal authors of the
             Document (all of its principal authors, if it has
             fewer than five), unless they release you from this

         C.  State on the Title page the name of the publisher of
             the Modified Version, as the publisher.

         D.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

         E.  Add an appropriate copyright notice for your
             modifications adjacent to the other copyright

         F.  Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a
             license notice giving the public permission to use
             the Modified Version under the terms of this
             License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

         G.  Preserve in that license notice the full lists of
             Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in
             the Document's license notice.

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         H.  Include an unaltered copy of this License.

         I.  Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve
             its Title, and add to it an item stating at least
             the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
             Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
             there is no section Entitled "History" in the
             Document, create one stating the title, year,
             authors, and publisher of the Document as given on
             its Title Page, then add an item describing the
             Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

         J.  Preserve the network location, if any, given in the
             Document for public access to a Transparent copy of
             the Document, and likewise the network locations
             given in the Document for previous versions it was
             based on.  These may be placed in the "History"
             section.  You may omit a network location for a work
             that was published at least four years before the
             Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
             version it refers to gives permission.

         K.  For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or
             "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section,
             and preserve in the section all the substance and
             tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
             and/or dedications given therein.

         L.  Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
             unaltered in their text and in their titles.
             Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered
             part of the section titles.

         M.  Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a
             section may not be included in the Modified Version.

         N.  Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
             "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any
             Invariant Section.

         O.  Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

         If the Modified Version includes new front-matter
         sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary
         Sections and contain no material copied from the
         Document, you may at your option designate some or all
         of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their
         titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
         Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct
         from any other section titles.

         You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified
         Version by various parties---for example, statements of
         peer review or that the text has been approved by an
         organization as the authoritative definition of a

         You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-
         Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-
         Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the
         Modified Version.  Only one passage of Front-Cover Text
         and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
         arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document
         already includes a cover text for the same cover,
         previously added by you or by arrangement made by the
         same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add
         another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
         permission from the previous publisher that added the
         old one.

         The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by
         this License give permission to use their names for
         publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any
         Modified Version.


         You may combine the Document with other documents
         released under this License, under the terms defined in
         section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you
         include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections
         of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list
         them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in
         its license notice, and that you preserve all their
         Warranty Disclaimers.

         The combined work need only contain one copy of this
         License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may
         be replaced with a single copy.  If there are multiple
         Invariant Sections with the same name but different
         contents, make the title of each such section unique by
         adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
         original author or publisher of that section if known,
         or else a unique number.  Make the same adjustment to
         the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in
         the license notice of the combined work.

         In the combination, you must combine any sections
         Entitled "History" in the various original documents,
         forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine
         any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any
         sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all
         sections Entitled "Endorsements."

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)


         You may make a collection consisting of the Document and
         other documents released under this License, and replace
         the individual copies of this License in the various
         documents with a single copy that is included in the
         collection, provided that you follow the rules of this
         License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in
         all other respects.

         You may extract a single document from such a
         collection, and distribute it individually under this
         License, provided you insert a copy of this License into
         the extracted document, and follow this License in all
         other respects regarding verbatim copying of that


         A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with
         other separate and independent documents or works, in or
         on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is
         called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from
         the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of
         the compilation's users beyond what the individual works
         permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate,
         this License does not apply to the other works in the
         aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of
         the Document.

         If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable
         to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is
         less than one half of the entire aggregate, the
         Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that
         bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
         electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in
         electronic form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed
         covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


         Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you
         may distribute translations of the Document under the
         terms of section 4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with
         translations requires special permission from their
         copyright holders, but you may include translations of
         some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
         original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may
         include a translation of this License, and all the
         license notices in the Document, and any Warranty
         Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original
         English version of this License and the original

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
         disagreement between the translation and the original
         version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the
         original version will prevail.

         If a section in the Document is Entitled
         "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the
         requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section
         1) will typically require changing the actual title.


         You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the
         Document except as expressly provided under this
         License.  Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
         sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will
         automatically terminate your rights under this License.

         However, if you cease all violation of this License,
         then your license from a particular copyright holder is
         reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the
         copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your
         license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
         fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable
         means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

         Moreover, your license from a particular copyright
         holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder
         notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means,
         this is the first time you have received notice of
         violation of this License (for any work) from that
         copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30
         days after your receipt of the notice.

         Termination of your rights under this section does not
         terminate the licenses of parties who have received
         copies or rights from you under this License.  If your
         rights have been terminated and not permanently
         reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same
         material does not give you any rights to use it.


         The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised
         versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time
         to time.  Such new versions will be similar in spirit to
         the present version, but may differ in detail to address
         new problems or concerns.  See

         Each version of the License is given a distinguishing
         version number.  If the Document specifies that a

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

         particular numbered version of this License "or any
         later version" applies to it, you have the option of
         following the terms and conditions either of that
         specified version or of any later version that has been
         published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
         Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
         number of this License, you may choose any version ever
         published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
         Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy can
         decide which future versions of this License can be
         used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
         version permanently authorizes you to choose that
         version for the Document.


         "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site")
         means any World Wide Web server that publishes
         copyrightable works and also provides prominent
         facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A public
         wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a
         server.  A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or
         "MMC") contained in the site means any set of
         copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

         "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share
         Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons
         Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a
         principal place of business in San Francisco,
         California, as well as future copyleft versions of that
         license published by that same organization.

         "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document,
         in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

         An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed
         under this License, and if all works that were first
         published under this License somewhere other than this
         MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part
         into the MMC, \fIs0(1) had no cover texts or invariant
         sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to
         November 1, 2008.

         The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC
         contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at
         any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is
         eligible for relicensing.

  ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
     To use this License in a document you have written, include
     a copy of the License in the document and put the following
     copyright and license notices just after the title page:

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GFDL(7)                        GNU                        GFDL(7)

               Copyright (C)  <year>  <your name>.
               Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
               under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
               or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
               with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
               Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
               Free Documentation License".

     If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-
     Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

                 with the Invariant Sections being <list their titles>, with
                 the Front-Cover Texts being <list>, and with the Back-Cover Texts
                 being <list>.

     If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some
     other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives
     to suit the situation.

     If your document contains nontrivial examples of program
     code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel
     under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
     General Public License, to permit their use in free


     gpl(7), fsf-funding(7).


     Copyright (c) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software
     Foundation, Inc.  <>

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

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