GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
gpl - GNU General Public License
GNU General Public License
Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright (c) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license
for software and other kinds of works.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are
designed to take away your freedom to share and change the
works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all
versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software
for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use
the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it
applies also to any other work released this way by its
authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom,
not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make
sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free
software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive
source code or can get it if you want it, that you can
change the software or use pieces of it in new free
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To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from
denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the
rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it:
responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program,
whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the
recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must
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code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two
steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer
you this License giving you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify it.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly
explains that there is no warranty for this free software.
For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that
modified versions be marked as changed, so that their
problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of
Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or
run modified versions of the software inside them, although
the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally
incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to
change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse
occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which
is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we
have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the
practice for those products. If such problems arise
substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend
this provision to those domains in future versions of the
GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.
Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software
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special danger that patents applied to a free program could
make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL
assures that patents cannot be used to render the program
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution
and modification follow.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS
"This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General
"Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to
other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.
"The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed
under this License. Each licensee is addressed as
"you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals
To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or
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resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.
A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
a work based on the Program.
To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that,
without permission, would make you directly or
secondarily liable for infringement under applicable
copyright law, except executing it on a computer or
modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying,
distribution (with or without modification), making
available to the public, and in some countries other
activities as well.
To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that
enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere
interaction with a user through a computer network, with
no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate
Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a
convenient and prominently visible feature that (1)
displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells
the user that there is no warranty for the work (except
to the extent that warranties are provided), that
licensees may convey the work under this License, and
how to view a copy of this License. If the interface
presents a list of user commands or options, such as a
menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.
1. Source Code.
The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of
the work for making modifications to it. "Object code"
means any non-source form of a work.
A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is
an official standard defined by a recognized standards
body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a
particular programming language, one that is widely used
among developers working in that language.
The "System Libraries" of an executable work include
anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is
included in the normal form of packaging a Major
Component, but which is not part of that Major
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interpreter used to run it.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code
form means all the source code needed to generate,
install, and (for an executable work) run the object
code and to modify the work, including scripts to
control those activities. However, it does not include
the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or
generally available free programs which are used
unmodified in performing those activities but which are
not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source
includes interface definition files associated with
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intimate data communication or control flow between
those subprograms and other parts of the work.
The Corresponding Source need not include anything that
users can regenerate automatically from other parts of
the Corresponding Source.
The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form
is that same work.
2. Basic Permissions.
All rights granted under this License are granted for
the term of copyright on the Program, and are
irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met.
This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
permission to run the unmodified Program. The output
from running a covered work is covered by this License
only if the output, given its content, constitutes a
covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of
fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright
You may make, run and propagate covered works that you
do not convey, without conditions so long as your
license otherwise remains in force. You may convey
covered works to others for the sole purpose of having
them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide
you with facilities for running those works, provided
that you comply with the terms of this License in
conveying all material for which you do not control
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works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf,
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them from making any copies of your copyrighted material
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Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted
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is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective
technological measure under any applicable law
fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO
copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar
laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such
When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal
power to forbid circumvention of technological measures
to the extent such circumvention is effected by
exercising rights under this License with respect to the
covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit
operation or modification of the work as a means of
enforcing, against the work's users, your or third
parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of
4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source
code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices
stating that this License and any non-permissive terms
added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep
intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and
give all recipients a copy of this License along with
You may charge any price or no price for each copy that
you convey, and you may offer support or warranty
protection for a fee.
5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.
You may convey a work based on the Program, or the
modifications to produce it from the Program, in the
form of source code under the terms of section 4,
provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a. The work must carry prominent notices stating that
you modified it, and giving a relevant date.
b. The work must carry prominent notices stating that
it is released under this License and any conditions
added under section 7. This requirement modifies
the requirement in section 4 to "keep intact all
c. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under
this License to anyone who comes into possession of
a copy. This License will therefore apply, along
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to
the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless
of how they are packaged. This License gives no
permission to license the work in any other way, but
it does not invalidate such permission if you have
separately received it.
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must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if
the Program has interactive interfaces that do not
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not make them do so.
A compilation of a covered work with other separate and
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resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or
legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the
individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in
an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the
other parts of the aggregate.
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You may convey a covered work in object code form under
the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also
convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under
the terms of this License, in one of these ways:
a. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a
physical product (including a physical distribution
medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source
fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used
for software interchange.
b. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a
physical product (including a physical distribution
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at least three years and valid for as long as you
offer spare parts or customer support for that
product model, to give anyone who possesses the
object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding
Source for all the software in the product that is
covered by this License, on a durable physical
medium customarily used for software interchange,
for a price no more than your reasonable cost of
physically performing this conveying of source, or
(2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a
network server at no charge.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
c. Convey individual copies of the object code with a
copy of the written offer to provide the
Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed
only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if
you received the object code with such an offer, in
accord with subsection 6b.
d. Convey the object code by offering access from a
designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer
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same way through the same place at no further
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the place to copy the object code is a network
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that supports equivalent copying facilities,
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that it is available for as long as needed to
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e. Convey the object code using peer-to-peer
transmission, provided you inform other peers where
the object code and Corresponding Source of the work
are being offered to the general public at no charge
under subsection 6d.
A separable portion of the object code, whose source
code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a
System Library, need not be included in conveying the
object code work.
A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product",
which means any tangible personal property which is
normally used for personal, family, or household
purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for
incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a
product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be
resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product
received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to
a typical or common use of that class of product,
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the way in which the particular user actually uses, or
expects or is expected to use, the product. A product
is a consumer product regardless of whether the product
has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer
uses, unless such uses represent the only significant
mode of use of the product.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
"Installation Information" for a User Product means any
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information must suffice to ensure that the continued
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has been made.
If you convey an object code work under this section in,
or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and
the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which
the right of possession and use of the User Product is
transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a
fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is
characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under
this section must be accompanied by the Installation
Information. But this requirement does not apply if
neither you nor any third party retains the ability to
install modified object code on the User Product (for
example, the work has been installed in ROM).
The requirement to provide Installation Information does
not include a requirement to continue to provide support
service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been
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Access to a network may be denied when the modification
itself materially and adversely affects the operation of
the network or violates the rules and protocols for
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Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation
Information provided, in accord with this section must
be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an
implementation available to the public in source code
form), and must require no special password or key for
unpacking, reading or copying.
7. Additional Terms.
"Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the
terms of this License by making exceptions from one or
more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are
applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as
though they were included in this License, to the extent
that they are valid under applicable law. If additional
permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part
may be used separately under those permissions, but the
entire Program remains governed by this License without
regard to the additional permissions.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at
your option remove any additional permissions from that
copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions
may be written to require their own removal in certain
cases when you modify the work.) You may place
additional permissions on material, added by you to a
covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for
material you add to a covered work, you may (if
authorized by the copyright holders of that material)
supplement the terms of this License with terms:
a. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability
differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of
this License; or
b. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal
notices or author attributions in that material or
in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works
containing it; or
c. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that
material, or requiring that modified versions of
such material be marked in reasonable ways as
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licensors or authors of the material; or
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use of some trade names, trademarks, or service
f. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors
of that material by anyone who conveys the material
(or modified versions of it) with contractual
assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any
liability that these contractual assumptions
directly impose on those licensors and authors.
All other non-permissive additional terms are considered
"further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10.
If the Program as you received it, or any part of it,
contains a notice stating that it is governed by this
License along with a term that is a further restriction,
you may remove that term. If a license document
contains a further restriction but permits relicensing
or conveying under this License, you may add to a
covered work material governed by the terms of that
license document, provided that the further restriction
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
does not survive such relicensing or conveying.
If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this
section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a
statement of the additional terms that apply to those
files, or a notice indicating where to find the
Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be
stated in the form of a separately written license, or
stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License
(including any patent licenses granted under the third
paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License,
then your license from a particular copyright holder is
reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the
copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your
license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable
means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright
holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder
notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means,
this is the first time you have received notice of
violation of this License (for any work) from that
copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30
days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not
terminate the licenses of parties who have received
copies or rights from you under this License. If your
rights have been terminated and not permanently
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses
for the same material under section 10.
9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
You are not required to accept this License in order to
receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary
propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a
consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to
receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.
However, nothing other than this License grants you
permission to propagate or modify any covered work.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept
this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this
License to do so.
10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient
automatically receives a license from the original
licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work,
subject to this License. You are not responsible for
enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring
control of an organization, or substantially all assets
of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging
organizations. If propagation of a covered work results
from an entity transaction, each party to that
transaction who receives a copy of the work also
receives whatever licenses to the work the party's
predecessor in interest had or could give under the
previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in
interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with
You may not impose any further restrictions on the
exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this
License. For example, you may not impose a license fee,
royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted
under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit)
alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making,
using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the
Program or any portion of it.
A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use
under this License of the Program or a work on which the
Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the
contributor's "contributor version".
A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent
claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether
already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be
infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of
making, using, or selling its contributor version, but
do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
consequence of further modification of the contributor
version. For purposes of this definition, "control"
includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a
manner consistent with the requirements of this License.
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
royalty-free patent license under the contributor's
essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for
sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the
contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is
any express agreement or commitment, however
denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express
permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue
for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent
license to a party means to make such an agreement or
commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a
patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work
is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and
under the terms of this License, through a publicly
available network server or other readily accessible
means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding
Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive
yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this
particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent
with the requirements of this License, to extend the
patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly
relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for
the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a
country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in
a country, would infringe one or more identifiable
patents in that country that you have reason to believe
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single
transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by
procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a
patent license to some of the parties receiving the
covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the
patent license you grant is automatically extended to
all recipients of the covered work and works based on
A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not
include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the
exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of
one or more of the rights that are specifically granted
under this License. You may not convey a covered work
if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party
that is in the business of distributing software, under
which you make payment to the third party based on the
extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under
which the third party grants, to any of the parties who
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
would receive the covered work from you, a
discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with
copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies
made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in
connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that
arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior
to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding
or limiting any implied license or other defenses to
infringement that may otherwise be available to you
under applicable patent law.
12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court
order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the
conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from
the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent
obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it
at all. For example, if you agree to terms that
obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying
from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way
you could satisfy both those terms and this License
would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you
have permission to link or combine any covered work with
a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero
General Public License into a single combined work, and
to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License
will continue to apply to the part which is the covered
work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero
General Public License, section 13, concerning
interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.
14. Revised Versions of this License.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or
new versions of the GNU General Public License from time
to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to
the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version
of the GNU General Public License "or any later version"
applies to it, you have the option of following the
terms and conditions either of that numbered version or
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version
number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose
any version ever published by the Free Software
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which
future versions of the GNU General Public License can be
used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
version permanently authorizes you to choose that
version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or
different permissions. However, no additional
obligations are imposed on any author or copyright
holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later
15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT
PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE
STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER
PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT
NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE
DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY
SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
16. Limitation of Liability.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED
TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER
PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS
PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING
ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR
DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR
OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of
liability provided above cannot be given local legal
effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall
apply local law that most closely approximates an
absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection
with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of
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GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return
for a fee.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the
greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve
this is to make it free software which everyone can
redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It
is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to
most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each
file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer
to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a
short notice like this when it starts in an interactive
<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type "show w".
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type "show c" for details.
The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course,
your program's commands might be different; for a GUI
interface, you would use an "about box".
You should also get your employer (if you work as a
programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright
disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more
gcc-7.3.0 Last change: 2018-01-25 15
GPL(7) GNU GPL(7)
information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU
GPL, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating
your program into proprietary programs. If your program is
a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to
permit linking proprietary applications with the library.
If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License. But first, please
Copyright (c) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
gcc-7.3.0 Last change: 2018-01-25 16
Man(1) output converted with