arp -- Internet and Ethernet address resolution protocol


#include <sys/sockio.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/if_arp.h>

int s; struct arpreq arpreq;

s = open(_PATH_ROUTE, O_WRONLY, 0);

ioctl(s, SIOCSARP, (caddr_t)&arpreq); ioctl(s, SIOCGARP, (caddr_t)&arpreq); ioctl(s, SIOCDARP, (caddr_t)&arpreq);


ARP is a protocol used to dynamically map between Internet version 4 (IPv4) and IEEE MAC addresses. It is used by Ethernet-style interface drivers running the Internet protocols.

ARP caches Internet-IEEE address mappings. When an interface requests a mapping for an address not in the cache, ARP queues the message which requires the mapping and broadcasts a message on the associated network requesting the address mapping. If a response is provided, the new mapping is cached and any pending message is transmitted. ARP will queue at most one packet while waiting for a mapping request to be responded to; only the most recently ``transmitted'' packet is kept. The ARP protocol is implemented by a STREAMS driver to do the protocol negotiation.

To facilitate communications with systems which do not use ARP, a mechanism is provided for manipulating the entries in the ARP cache. Since the ARP cache is stored in the routing table, this requires use of the routing stream driver (see route(7tcp)).

An ARP ``route'' consists of an IPv4 destination and a link-level next hop address. To add an ARP entry, issue an RTM_ADD message to the routing stream interface. Both the destination and gateway address fields must be present. The destination address is defined as follows (see sys/netinet/if_ether.h):

struct sockaddr_inarp {
	u_char  sin_len;		/* length of sockaddr_inarp */
	u_char  sin_family;		/* AF_INET */
	u_short sin_port;		/* not used */
	struct  in_addr sin_addr;	/* IP address */
	struct  in_addr sin_srcaddr;	/* not used */
	u_short sin_tos;		/* not used */
	u_short sin_other;		/* set to SIN_PROXY to publish */
#define SIN_PROXY 1
The gateway is a link-level address and is defined using the following structure (see sys/net/if_dl.h):
 * Structure of a Link-Level sockaddr:
struct sockaddr_dl {
        u_char  sdl_len;	/* length of sockaddr_dl */
        u_char  sdl_family;     /* AF_DL */
        u_short sdl_index;      /* if != 0, index for interface */
        u_char  sdl_type;       /* if type (see net/if_types.h) */
        u_char  sdl_alen;       /* link address length (normally 6) */
        char    sdl_data[10];   /* address */
#define LLADDR(s) ((caddr_t)((s)->sdl_data))
To retrieve all ARP entries, the preferred method is to use code similar to that shown in route(7tcp). The gi_arg field of the rt_giarg structure should be set to RTF_LLINFO. This ensures that only routes with valid link-level information (that is, ARP entries) are retrieved. The RTSTR_USELOOPBACK ioctl can be used to indicate that the process does not want to receive routing messages generated as a result of its own operations (see route(7tcp)). To denote an ARP entry as being permanent, the rt_expire field in the route structure should be set to zero. A non-zero value is treated as the time in seconds that the entry should be considered valid.

Alternatively, the following ioctl requests are provided to enter and delete ARP entries:

Set an ARP entry.

Get an ARP entry.

Delete an ARP entry.
Each ioctl request takes the arpreq structure as an argument. These ioctl requests may be applied to any descriptor for the ARP device, but only by a privileged user. The arpreq structure contains:
   /* ARP ioctl request structure */
   struct arpreq {
           struct sockaddr arp_pa;     /* protocol address */
           struct sockaddr arp_ha;     /* hardware address */
           int             arp_flags;  /* flags */

/* arp_flags field values */ #define ATF_INUSE 0x01 /* entry in use */ #define ATF_COM 0x2 /* completed entry (arp_ha valid) */ #define ATF_PERM 0x4 /* permanent entry */ #define ATF_PUBL 0x8 /* publish (respond for other host) */ #define ATF_USETRAILERS 0x10 /* send trailer packets to host */

The address family for the arp_pa sockaddr must be AF_INET; for the arp_ha sockaddr it must be AF_UNSPEC. The only flag bits that may be written are ATF_PERM, ATF_PUBL and ATF_USETRAILERS. ATF_PERM makes the entry permanent if the ioctl request succeeds. The nature of the ARP entries may cause the ioctl request to fail if too many permanent IP addresses hash to the same slot. ATF_PUBL specifies that the ARP code should respond to ARP requests for the indicated host coming from other machines. This allows a host to act as an ``ARP server'', which may be useful in convincing an ARP-only machine to talk to a non-ARP machine.

ARP is also used to negotiate the use of trailer IP encapsulations; trailers are an alternate encapsulation used to allow efficient packet alignment for large packets despite variable-sized headers. Hosts that wish to receive trailer encapsulations so indicate by sending gratuitous ARP translation replies along with replies to IP requests; they are also sent in reply to IP translation replies. The negotiation is thus fully symmetrical, in that either or both hosts may request trailers. The ATF_USETRAILERS flag is used to record the receipt of such a reply, and enables the transmission of trailer packets to that host.

An ARP entry may be ``published.'' This will cause ARP to answer requests for the entry even if its IP address is not one of the local addresses of the system. An entry is published by setting the sin_other field of the sockaddr_inarp structure to the value SIN_PROXY. ARP watches passively for hosts impersonating the local host (that is, a host that responds to an ARP mapping request for the local host's address).



defined as _PATH_ARP in <paths.h>


The kernel can report the following messages from the arp driver:

arp: broadcast IP address
ARP received a request or reply whose source or destination address was an IP broadcast address.

arp: duplicate IP address IP_address sent from ethernet address:MAC_address
ARP has discovered another host on the local network which responds to mapping requests for its own Internet address. This usually indicates that two systems are attempting to use the same IP address.

arp: IP_address moved from MAC_address to MAC_address
ARP received a reply that changed the MAC address associated with an existing completed entry. This may indicate a hardware change on a remote system.

arp: invalid opcode opcode
ARP received an ARP op-code that was not a request or a reply.


arp(1Mtcp), ifconfig(1Mtcp), inconfig(1Mtcp), inet(7tcp), netstat(1Mtcp), route(7tcp), streamio(7)

``Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) parameters'' on the inconfig(1Mtcp) manual page

RFC 826, RFC 1042

© 2004 The SCO Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
UnixWare 7 Release 7.1.4 - 25 April 2004